1761 1st ed History of Russian Empire Peter the Great by VOLTAIRE Folding MAPS

François Marie Arouet Voltaire, de. Johann Michael Hube Anton Friedrich Büsching

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While Voltaire was known most-known for his historical works, this history of the Russian Empire under Peter the Great is an excellent work of French and Russian history. This particular edition is translated into German.

François-Marie Arouet (1694 – 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets.

Peter the Great (1672 – 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific, westernized, and based on The Enlightenment. Peter’s reforms made a lasting impact on Russia and many institutions of Russian government traced their origins to his reign.

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1761 1st ed History of Russian Empire Peter the Great by VOLTAIRE Folding MAPS

 

While Voltaire was known most-known for his historical works, this history of the Russian Empire under Peter the Great is an excellent work of French and Russian history. This particular edition is translated into German.

 

François-Marie Arouet (1694 – 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets.

 

Peter the Great (1672 – 1725) ruled the Tsardom of Russia and later the Russian Empire from 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his elder half-brother, Ivan V. Through a number of successful wars he expanded the Tsardom into a much larger empire that became a major European power. He led a cultural revolution that replaced some of the traditionalist and medieval social and political systems with ones that were modern, scientific, westernized, and based on The Enlightenment. Peter’s reforms made a lasting impact on Russia and many institutions of Russian government traced their origins to his reign.

 

Main author: François Marie Arouet Voltaire, de.; Anton Friedrich Büsching; Johann Michael Hube

 

Title: Geschichte des russischen Reichs unter Peter dem Grossen

 

Published: Frankfurt : Brönner, 1761.

 

Language: German

 

Notes & contents:

  • 1st edition
  • Two huge folding maps of Russia

 

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Pages: complete with all 278 pages; plus indexes, prefaces, and such

Publisher: Frankfurt : Brönner, 1761.

Size: ~7in X 4in (17.5cm x 10cm)

 

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François-Marie Arouet (French: [fʁɑ̃.swa ma.ʁi aʁ.wɛ]; 21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire (/voʊlˈtɛər/;[1] French: [vɔl.tɛːʁ]), was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.

Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate of several liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma, and the French institutions of his day.

Contents  [hide]

1          Biography

1.1       Adopts the name “Voltaire”

1.2       La Henriade and Mariamne

1.3       Great Britain

1.4       Château de Cirey

1.5       Sanssouci

1.6       Geneva and Ferney

1.7       Death and burial

2          Writings

2.1       History

2.2       Poetry

2.3       Prose

2.4       Letters

3          Religious views

3.1       Christianity

3.2       Judaism

3.3       Islam

3.3.1    Essay on the Manners and Spirit of Nations

3.3.2    The drama Mahomet

3.4       Hinduism

4          Views on race and slavery

5          Appreciation and influence

6          Voltaire and Rousseau

7          Legacy

8          Chronology

9          Works

9.1       Philosophical works

9.2       Plays

9.3       Historical

10        See also

11        Notes

12        References

13        Further reading

13.1     In French

13.2     Primary sources

14        External links

Biography[edit]

François-Marie Arouet was born in Paris, the youngest of the five children of François Arouet (19 August 1649 – 1 January 1722), a lawyer who was a minor treasury official, and his wife, Marie Marguerite Daumard (c. 1660 – 13 July 1701), whose family was on the lowest rank of the French nobility.[2] Some speculation surrounds Voltaire’s date of birth, because he claimed he was born on 20 February 1694 as the illegitimate son of a nobleman, Guérin de Rochebrune or Roquebrune.[3] Two of his elder brothers—Armand-François and Robert—died in infancy and his surviving brother, Armand, and sister Marguerite-Catherine were nine and seven years older, respectively.[4] Nicknamed ‘Zozo’ by his family, Voltaire was baptized on 22 November 1694, with François de Castagnère, abbé de Châteauneuf, and Marie Daumard, the wife of his mother’s cousin, standing as godparents.[5] He was educated by the Jesuits at the Collège Louis-le-Grand (1704–1711), where he was taught Latin, theology, and rhetoric;[6] later in life he became fluent in Italian, Spanish, and English.[7]

By the time he left school, Voltaire had decided he wanted to be a writer, against the wishes of his father, who wanted him to become a lawyer.[8] Voltaire, pretending to work in Paris as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry. When his father found out, he sent Voltaire to study law, this time in Caen, Normandy. Nevertheless, he continued to write, producing essays and historical studies. Voltaire’s wit made him popular among some of the aristocratic families with whom he mixed. In 1713, his father obtained a job for him as a secretary to the new French ambassador in the Netherlands, the marquis de Châteauneuf, the brother of Voltaire’s godfather.[9] At The Hague, Voltaire fell in love with a French Protestant refugee named Catherine Olympe Dunoyer (known as ‘Pimpette’).[9] Their scandalous affair was discovered by de Châteauneuf and Voltaire was forced to return to France by the end of the year.[10]

 

Voltaire was imprisoned in the Bastille from 16 May 1717 to 15 April 1718 in a windowless cell with ten-foot thick walls.[11]

Most of Voltaire’s early life revolved around Paris. From early on, Voltaire had trouble with the authorities for critiques of the government. These activities were to result in two imprisonments and a temporary exile to England. One satirical verse, in which Voltaire accused the Régent of incest with his own daughter, led to an eleven-month imprisonment in the Bastille.[12] The Comédie-Française had agreed in January 1717 to stage his debut play, Œdipe, and it opened in mid-November 1718, seven months after his release.[13] Its immediate critical and financial success established his reputation.[14] Both the Régent and King George I of Great Britain presented Voltaire with medals as a mark of their appreciation.[15]

He mainly argued for religious tolerance and freedom of thought. He campaigned to eradicate priestly and aristo-monarchical authority, and supported a constitutional monarchy that protects people’s rights.[16][17]

Adopts the name “Voltaire”[edit]

The author adopted the name “Voltaire” in 1718, following his incarceration at the Bastille. Its origin is unclear. It is an anagram of AROVET LI, the Latinized spelling of his surname, Arouet, and the initial letters of le jeune (“the young”).[18] According to a family tradition among the descendants of his sister, he was known as le petit volontaire (“determined little thing”) as a child, and he resurrected a variant of the name in his adult life.[19] The name also reverses the syllables of Airvault, his family’s home town in the Poitou region.[20]

Richard Holmes[21] supports the anagrammatic derivation of the name, but adds that a writer such as Voltaire would have intended it to also convey its connotations of speed and daring. These come from associations with words such as voltige (acrobatics on a trapeze or horse), volte-face (a spinning about to face one’s enemies), and volatile (originally, any winged creature). “Arouet” was not a noble name fit for his growing reputation, especially given that name’s resonance with à rouer (“to be beaten up”) and roué (a débauché).

In a letter to Jean-Baptiste Rousseau in March 1719, Voltaire concludes by asking that, if Rousseau wishes to send him a return letter, he do so by addressing it to Monsieur de Voltaire. A postscript explains: “J’ai été si malheureux sous le nom d’Arouet que j’en ai pris un autre surtout pour n’être plus confondu avec le poète Roi”, (I was so unhappy under the name of Arouet that I have taken another, primarily so as to cease to be confused with the poet Roi.)[22] This probably refers to Adenes le Roi, and the ‘oi’ diphthong was then pronounced like modern ‘ouai’, so the similarity to ‘Arouet’ is clear, and thus, it could well have been part of his rationale. Indeed, Voltaire is known also to have used at least 178 separate pen names during his lifetime.[23]

La Henriade and Mariamne[edit]

Voltaire’s next play Artémire, set in ancient Macedonia, opened on 15 February 1720. It was a flop and only fragments of the text survive.[24] He instead turned to an epic poem about Henri IV of France that he had begun in early 1717.[25] Denied a licence to publish, in August 1722 Voltaire headed north to find a publisher outside France. On the journey, he was accompanied by his mistress, Marie-Marguerite de Rupelmonde, a young widow.[26]

At Brussels, Voltaire and Rousseau met up for a few days, before Voltaire and his mistress continued northwards. A publisher was eventually secured in The Hague.[27] In the Netherlands, Voltaire was struck and impressed by the openness and tolerance of Dutch society.[28] On his return to France, he secured a second publisher in Rouen, who agreed to publish La Henriade clandestinely.[29] After Voltaire’s recovery from a month-long smallpox infection in November 1723, the first copies were smuggled into Paris and distributed.[30] While the poem was an instant success, Voltaire’s new play, Mariamne, was a failure when it first opened in March 1724.[31] Heavily reworked, it opened at the Comédie-Française in April 1725 to a much-improved reception.[31] It was among the entertainments provided at the wedding of Louis XV and Marie Leszczyńska in September 1725.[31]

Great Britain[edit]

In early 1726, a young French nobleman, the chevalier de Rohan-Chabot, taunted Voltaire about his change of name, and Voltaire retorted that his name would be honoured while de Rohan would dishonour his.[32] Infuriated, de Rohan arranged for Voltaire to be beaten up by thugs a few days later.[33] Seeking compensation, redress, or revenge, Voltaire challenged de Rohan to a duel, but the aristocratic de Rohan family arranged for Voltaire to be arrested and imprisoned in the Bastille on 17 April 1726 without a trial or an opportunity to defend himself.[34][35] Fearing an indefinite prison sentence, Voltaire suggested that he be exiled to England as an alternative punishment, which the French authorities accepted.[36] On 2 May, he was escorted from the Bastille to Calais, where he was to embark for Britain.[37]

In England, Voltaire lived largely in Wandsworth with acquaintances including Everard Fawkener.[38] From December 1727 to June 1728 he lodged at Maiden Lane, Covent Garden, now commemorated by a plaque, to be nearer to his British publisher.[39] Voltaire circulated throughout English high society, meeting Alexander Pope, John Gay, Jonathan Swift, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, and many other members of the nobility and royalty.[40] Voltaire’s exile in Great Britain greatly influenced his thinking. He was intrigued by Britain’s constitutional monarchy in contrast to French absolutism, and by the country’s greater support of the freedoms of speech and religion.[41] He was influenced by the writers of the age, and developed an interest in earlier English literature, especially the works of Shakespeare, still relatively unknown in continental Europe.[42] Despite pointing out his deviations from neoclassical standards, Voltaire saw Shakespeare as an example that French writers might emulate, since French drama, despite being more polished, lacked on-stage action. Later, however, as Shakespeare’s influence began growing in France, Voltaire tried to set a contrary example with his own plays, decrying what he considered Shakespeare’s barbarities. Voltaire may have been present at the funeral of Isaac Newton,[43] and met Newton’s niece, Catherine Conduitt.[39] In 1727 he published two essays in English, Upon the Civil Wars of France, Extracted from Curious Manuscripts, and Upon Epic Poetry of the European Nations, from Homer Down to Milton.[39]

 

Pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour, 1735

After two and a half years in exile, Voltaire returned to France, and after a few months living in Dieppe, the authorities permitted him to return to Paris.[44] At a dinner, French mathematician Charles Marie de La Condamine proposed buying up the lottery that was organized by the French government to pay off its debts, and Voltaire joined the consortium, earning perhaps a million livres.[45] He invested the money cleverly and on this basis managed to convince the Court of Finances that he was of good conduct and so was able to take control of a capital inheritance from his father that had hitherto been tied up in trust. He was now indisputably rich.[46][47]

Further success followed, in 1732, with his play Zaïre, which when published in 1733 carried a dedication to Fawkener that praised English liberty and commerce.[48] At this time he published his views on British attitudes toward government, literature, religion and science in a collection of essays in letter form entitled Letters Concerning the English Nation (London, 1733).[49] In 1734, they were published in French as Lettres philosophiques in Rouen.[50][note 1] Because the publisher released the book without the approval of the royal censor and Voltaire regarded the British constitutional monarchy as more developed and more respectful of human rights (particularly religious tolerance) than its French counterpart, the French publication of Letters caused a huge scandal; the book was publicly burnt and banned, and Voltaire was forced again to flee Paris

Categories

Law & Government

Asia, Africa, & Middle Eastern

Authors

François Marie Arouet Voltaire, de. Johann Michael Hube Anton Friedrich Büsching

Printing Date

18th Century

Language

German

Binding

Leather

Book Condition

Good

Collation

Complete