1793 Galileo Galilei Discorso by Torquato Tasso ITALIAN Astronomy Mathematics

Galileo Galilei Tasso Giuseppe Iseo

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Torquato Tasso (1544 – 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered, 1581), in which he depicts a highly imaginative version of the combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the siege of Jerusalem.

Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642), was an Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance. Galileo has been called the “father of observational astronomy”, the “father of modern physics”, and the “father of science”.

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1793 Galileo Galilei Discorso by Torquato Tasso ITALIAN Astronomy Mathematics

VERY Rare printing in BEAUTIFUL Vellum Binding

 

Torquato Tasso (1544 – 1595) was an Italian poet of the 16th century, best known for his poem La Gerusalemme liberata (Jerusalem Delivered, 1581), in which he depicts a highly imaginative version of the combats between Christians and Muslims at the end of the First Crusade, during the siege of Jerusalem.

 

Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642), was an Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance. Galileo has been called the “father of observational astronomy”, the “father of modern physics”, and the “father of science”.

 

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Main author: Galileo Galilei; Giuseppe Iseo; Tasso

 

Title: Considerazioni al Tasso di Galileo Galilei e Discorso di Giuseppe Iseo sopra il poema di M. Torquato Tasso per dimostrazione di alcuni luoghi in diversi autori da lui felicemente emulati.

 

Published: Roma, Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793.

 

Language: Italian

 

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Publisher: Roma, Stamperia Pagliarini, 1793.

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Galileo Galilei (Italian pronunciation: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]; 15 February 1564[3] – 8 January 1642), was an Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance. Galileo has been called the “father of observational astronomy”,[4] the “father of modern physics”,[5][6] and the “father of science”.[7] His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour), and the observation and analysis of sunspots. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology, inventing an improved military compass and other instruments.

Galileo’s championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial within his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system.[8] He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism due to the absence of an observed stellar parallax.[8] The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, and they concluded that it could only be supported as a possibility, not as an established fact.[8][9] Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII and thus alienated him and the Jesuits, who had both supported Galileo up until this point.[8] He was tried by the Inquisition, found “vehemently suspect of heresy”, forced to recant, and spent the rest of his life under house arrest.[10][11] It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he wrote one of his finest works, Two New Sciences. Here he summarized the work he had done some forty years earlier, on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials.[12][13]

Contents  [hide]

1              Early life and family

1.1          Name

1.2          Children

2              Career as a scientist

2.1          Galileo, Kepler and theories of tides

2.2          Controversy over comets and The Assayer

2.3          Controversy over heliocentrism

3              Death

4              Scientific methods

5              Astronomy

5.1          Kepler’s supernova

5.2          Jupiter

5.3          Venus, Saturn, and Neptune

5.4          Sunspots

5.5          Moon

5.6          Milky Way and stars

6              Engineering

7              Physics

7.1          Falling bodies

8              Mathematics

9              His writings

9.1          Summary of Galileo’s published written works

10           Legacy

10.1        Church reassessments of Galileo in later centuries

10.2        Impact on modern science

10.3        In artistic and popular media

11           Timeline

12           See also

13           Notes

14           References

15           External links

15.1        By Galileo

15.2        On Galileo

15.2.1     Biography

15.2.2     Galileo and the Church

Early life and family

Galileo was born in Pisa (then part of the Duchy of Florence), Italy, in 1564,[14] the first of six children of Vincenzo Galilei, a famous lutenist, composer, and music theorist, and Giulia Ammannati. Galileo became an accomplished lutenist himself and would have learned early from his father a scepticism for established authority,[15] the value of well-measured or quantified experimentation, an appreciation for a periodic or musical measure of time or rhythm, as well as the results expected from a combination of mathematics and experiment.

Three of Galileo’s five siblings survived infancy. The youngest, Michelangelo (or Michelagnolo), also became a noted lutenist and composer although he contributed to financial burdens during Galileo’s young adulthood. Michelangelo was unable to contribute his fair share of their father’s promised dowries to their brothers-in-law, who would later attempt to seek legal remedies for payments due. Michelangelo would also occasionally have to borrow funds from Galileo to support his musical endeavours and excursions. These financial burdens may have contributed to Galileo’s early fire to develop inventions that would bring him additional income.

When Galileo Galilei was eight, his family moved to Florence, but he was left with Jacopo Borghini for two years.[14] He then was educated in the Camaldolese Monastery at Vallombrosa, 35 km southeast of Florence.[14]

Name

The surname Galilei derives from the given name of an ancestor, Galileo Bonaiuti, a physician, university teacher and politician who lived in Florence from 1370 to 1450; his descendents had changed their family name from Bonaiuti (or Buonaiuti) to Galilei in his honor in the late 14th century.[16] Galileo Bonaiuti was buried in the same church, the Basilica of Santa Croce in Florence, where about 200 years later his more famous descendant Galileo Galilei was also buried.[citation needed]

It was common for mid-sixteenth century Tuscan families to name the eldest son after the parents’ surname[17] – hence, Galileo Galilei was not necessarily named after his ancestor Galileo Bonaiuti. The Italian male given name “Galileo” (and thence the surname “Galilei”) derives from the Latin “Galilaeus”, meaning “of Galilee”, a biblically significant region in Northern Israel.[18][19]

Children

 

Galileo’s beloved elder daughter, Virginia (Sister Maria Celeste), was particularly devoted to her father. She is buried with him in his tomb in the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence.

Despite being a genuinely pious Roman Catholic,[20] Galileo fathered three children out of wedlock with Marina Gamba. They had two daughters, Virginia in 1600 and Livia in 1601, and one son, Vincenzo, in 1606.[21]

Because of their illegitimate birth, their father considered the girls unmarriageable, if not posing problems of prohibitively expensive support or dowries, which would have been similar to Galileo’s previous extensive financial problems with two of his sisters.[22] Their only worthy alternative was the religious life. Both girls were accepted by the convent of San Matteo in Arcetri and remained there for the rest of their lives.[23] Virginia took the name Maria Celeste upon entering the convent. She died on 2 April 1634, and is buried with Galileo at the Basilica of Santa Croce, Florence. Livia took the name Sister Arcangela and was ill for most of her life. Vincenzo was later legitimised as the legal heir of Galileo and married Sestilia Bocchineri.[24]

Career as a scientist

Although Galileo seriously considered the priesthood as a young man, at his father’s urging he instead enrolled at the University of Pisa for a medical degree.[25] In 1581, when he was studying medicine, he noticed a swinging chandelier, which air currents shifted about to swing in larger and smaller arcs. To him it seemed, by comparison with his heartbeat, that the chandelier took the same amount of time to swing back and forth, no matter how far it was swinging. When he returned home, he set up two pendulums of equal length and swung one with a large sweep and the other with a small sweep and found that they kept time together. It was not until Christiaan Huygens almost one hundred years later that the tautochrone nature of a swinging pendulum was used to create an accurate timepiece.[26] Up to this point, Galileo had deliberately been kept away from mathematics, since a physician earned a higher income than a mathematician. However, after accidentally attending a lecture on geometry, he talked his reluctant father into letting him study mathematics and natural philosophy instead of medicine.[26] He created a thermoscope, a forerunner of the thermometer, and in 1586 published a small book on the design of a hydrostatic balance he had invented (which first brought him to the attention of the scholarly world). Galileo also studied disegno, a term encompassing fine art, and in 1588 obtained the position of instructor in the Accademia delle Arti del Disegno in Florence, teaching perspective and chiaroscuro. Being inspired by the artistic tradition of the city and the works of the Renaissance artists, Galileo acquired an aesthetic mentality. While a young teacher at the Accademia, he began a lifelong friendship with the Florentine painter Cigoli, who included Galileo’s lunar observations in one of his paintings.[27][28]

In 1589, he was appointed to the chair of mathematics in Pisa. In 1591, his father died, and he was entrusted with the care of his younger brother Michelagnolo. In 1592, he moved to the University of Padua where he taught geometry, mechanics, and astronomy until 1610.[29] During this period, Galileo made significant discoveries in both pure fundamental science (for example, kinematics of motion and astronomy) as well as practical applied science (for example, strength of materials and pioneering the telescope). His multiple interests included the study of astrology, which at the time was a discipline tied to the studies of mathematics and astronomy.[30]

Galileo, Kepler and theories of tides

 

Galileo Galilei. Portrait by Leoni

Cardinal Bellarmine had written in 1615 that the Copernican system could not be defended without “a true physical demonstration that the sun does not circle the earth but the earth circles the sun”.[31] Galileo considered his theory of the tides to provide the required physical proof of the motion of the earth. This theory was so important to him that he originally intended to entitle his Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems the Dialogue on the Ebb and Flow of the Sea.[32] The reference to tides was removed from the title by order of the Inquisition.

For Galileo, the tides were caused by the sloshing back and forth of water in the seas as a point on the Earth’s surface sped up and slowed down because of the Earth’s rotation on its axis and revolution around the Sun. He circulated his first account of the tides in 1616, addressed to Cardinal Orsini.[33] His theory gave the first insight into the importance of the shapes of ocean basins in the size and timing of tides; he correctly accounted, for instance, for the negligible tides halfway along the Adriatic Sea compared to those at the ends. As a general account of the cause of tides, however, his theory was a failure.

If this theory were correct, there would be only one high tide per day. Galileo and his contemporaries were aware of this inadequacy because there are two daily high tides at Venice instead of one, about twelve hours apart. Galileo dismissed this anomaly as the result of several secondary causes including the shape of the sea, its depth, and other factors.[34] Against the assertion that Galileo was deceptive in making these arguments, Albert Einstein expressed the opinion that Galileo developed his “fascinating arguments” and accepted them uncritically out of a desire for physical proof of the motion of the Earth.[35] Galileo dismissed the idea, held by his contemporary Johannes Kepler, that the moon caused the tides.[36] He also refused to accept Kepler’s elliptical orbits of the planets,[37] considering the circle the “perfect” shape for planetary orbits.

Categories

Mathematics & Physics

Medicine & Science

Authors

Galileo Galilei Tasso Giuseppe Iseo

Printing Date

18th Century

Language

Italian

Binding

Vellum

Book Condition

Good

Collation

Complete